Mango (Mangifera indica L.), called also the king of fruits, is known for its fantastic taste and aroma as well as high nutritional value. It contains high concentration of vitamin C and folate, in addition to other vitamins and minerals. Mango provides a great variety of cultivars and food products, including drinks, juices, concentrates, jams, ice creams, etc.
Nutrition and bioactive compounds
Mango pulp is a source of various reducing sugars, amino acids, aromatic and functional compounds, like pectin, vitamins, anthocyanins, high amounts of antioxidants like polyphenols, and carotenoids. Raw mango consists of 84% water, 15% carbohydrates, 1% protein, and has negligible fat. Fresh mango contains vitamin C and folate in the significant amounts to fulfil 44% and 11% of the Daily Value, respectively.
Up to 25 different carotenoids have been isolated from the mango pulp, the densest being beta-carotene, which is the reason for the yellow-orange colour. Kernels and peels contain many bioactive compounds and minerals that are beneficial for health. Phytochemical and nutrient content varies among mango cultivars and climate conditions.
Magnifera indica is a tropical, fruit-bearing tree, that can grow as high as 30 m. Mango fruits are mature in April and May. Mango farmers often practice grafting to speed up the fruiting. The tree grows best in the well-drained sandy loam with pH between 5.2–7.5; it does not grow well in heavy wet soils. Weather conditions, especially temperature, influence tree growth, flowering, fruit growth, colour and size.
Mango probably originated from the South and South-East Asia. Today, it is an important crop in the tropical regions throughout Africa, South America, Hawaii, Central America, Asia, and the Caribbean. Worldwide, there are several hundred cultivars of mango that produce fruits of various size, shape, sweetness, skin and flesh colour which may be pale yellow, gold, green, or orange.
Fruit (ripe and unripe): food and food products (concentrates, juices, jams, ice cream, fruit bars, chutneys).
Kernels: edible oil, flour (can be combined with wheat and corn flour for nutrition and oxidative stability).
Peel: potential source of food‐grade mango peel pectin.
Market and production
Worldwide production of mangos, mangosteens and guavas in 2020 (FAO): almost 55 million tonnes, 8.6 million tonnes in Africa (15.7% production share), Eastern Africa 3.6 million tonnes
Main producing countries: India, Indonesia, China. In Africa: Malawi, Egypt, Nigeria; Eastern Africa: Malawi, Kenya, Ethiopia.